Articles by Florence Barrett-Hill

A series of articles on the topic of Anatomy, Physiology, Histology & Morphology by Florence Barrett-Hill taken from www.Beautymagonline.com


The Acid Mantle Eco System
Removal of the acid mantle on a daily basis through harsh alkaline washes and toners will lead to an imbalance of the micro flora. As has been mentioned, the skin has its own ecology, with an abundance of microorganisms living on the surface. Typically these are harmless provided the skin is unbroken, and the acid mantle remains intact.
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Acid Mantle: The Hydrolipic Film
The acid mantle or hydrolipic film, is an emulsion which covers the entire skins surface. Our understanding of it will help us recognise skin conditions created by it’s malfunction.
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Understanding Allergic & Reactive Skins
To understand and diagnose the sensitive/reactive skin its important to have a comprehensive knowledge of the skin, its immune systems and the role they play in the skin barrier defense system.
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Bacteria and Skin Surface Microflora
Many of the modern skin conditions/disorders of today are caused by over treatment and/or over cleansing by the patient. This cleansing habit combined with the poor quality emulsifiers that are frequently used in cosmetics today and the daily application of antibacterial substances has led to the adaptive immune system failing.
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Cell Immortality: The Secrets of Telomerase
Two variations on the theory of ageing dominate thought at the moment. One is that ageing is “built into the system”, irrevocable and only slightly affected by external factors.

The other states that the ageing process is dramatically influenced by external factors.
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Desmosomes: Epidermal Strength and Adhesion
Have you ever wondered what it is that your peeling treatments are affecting or how they work? This article explores cell junctions and the role they play in skin adhesion.
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Common Causes of Pigmentation
To be able to offer effective long-term treatment solutions, the contemporary skin treatment specialist must fully understand the prevailing skin condition and have an in-depth knowledge of the cells and systems involved to be able to confidently embark on a corrective program.
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Glycation and the Ageing Process
It is less widely known that blood sugar has an important bearing on the aging process. Unfortunately, in addition to being a vital cellular fuel, glucose is also a substance that can cause damage to cells and tissues by randomly reacting with proteins, DNA and other vital molecules.
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Hormones and skin ageing
Study of the hormones of the body and their functions is very necessary as many skin conditions arise in which these hormones are involved. We need to be able to understand the role the endocrine system plays in skin ageing, hirsutism and acne.
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The Immune System and Skin Conditions
Understanding the human immune system is of importance to the skin treatment therapist because it is a dominant part of the skin barrier defence systems.
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Understanding Photosensitivity
There are a number of well known chemicals that aggravate or cause hyper-pigmentation, but research has brought to light products commonly used by skin treatment therapists and clients that also are now known to be photo-sensitisers.
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Pigmentation: Causes and Chemistry
There are a number of chemical triggers for pigmentation, and it is important that any practitioner attempting to treat the condition understand and recognise them.
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Understanding Pigmentation: Melanosome Transfer to Keratinocyte
There is always a discussion about the skin condition pigmentation as being one of the most challenging skin conditions to successfully treat. Many treatment failures are becuase of a lack of understanding about what has gone wrong.
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Rosacea: Causes & Treatment options
Rosacea is perhaps one of the most widely seen skin conditions, but the least understood. Adding to the confusion is a plethora of treatments that claim to stop or reverse the effects of Rosacea.
The aggravating factors of Rosacea vary in each individual, so it is logical that to effectively treat the individual condition, the cause must be determined first to better choose the appropriate treatment modality.
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Skin Care & Infant Skin
Adult skin differs from infant skin in many ways; however, it is often treated as adult skin because of the belief that a child is simply an adult in miniature. This could not be further than the truth because of the different chemistry and biomechanics of children’s skin.
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The Immune System and Skin Conditions
The human immune system is a fascinating and complex defence mechanism. It is of importance to the skin treatment therapist because it is a dominant part of the skin barrier defence systems. Any failure or vulnerability of the skin barrier defence systems will be reflected by the manifestation of a number of skin conditions.
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The importance of genetics in skin analysis
There are many components to a successful skin analysis, with much of the most valuable information being supplied by the client during the consultation process; however one of the most beneficial pieces of information to be gathered during the consultation is details of the client’s phototype, genetic and UVR exposure history.
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Vitamins E & A and the Skin
Vitamins have not been successfully used in cosmetics until relatively recently; because of the belief that they could not penetrate the skin and because the metabolic activity of the skin was not adequately known. Now, with a better understanding of the physiology of hair, skin and nails, interest in topically applied vitamins has increased.
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The Wound Healing Process
Understanding the wound healing process can be applied to the action of non-ablative modalities such as dermal needling, photo-modulation, ultrasound, intense pulsed light, and laser.
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